AN ANNOTATED CATALOGUE OF SELECTED CUBAN PIANO WORKS FROM THE 18 TH -20 TH CENTURIES. A Monograph

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AN ANNOTATED CATALOGUE OF SELECTED CUBAN PIANO WORKS FROM THE 18 TH -20 TH CENTURIES A Monograph Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College
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AN ANNOTATED CATALOGUE OF SELECTED CUBAN PIANO WORKS FROM THE 18 TH -20 TH CENTURIES A Monograph Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Musical Arts In The School of Music by Nikie Oechsle Associate of Piano Pedagogy, Spring Arbor University, 2004 B.A., Spring Arbor University, 2004 M.M., Central Michigan University, 2006 M.M., Central Michigan University, 2007 December 2010 TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT...iii INTRODUCTION...1 HISTORICAL OVERVIEW...7 CATALOGUE OF WORKS...12 DESCRIPTIONS OF DANCES AND DANCE FORMS REFERENCES APPENDIX A COMPOSERS AND THEIR DATES B C COMPOSITIONS BY LEVEL SCORES AND MANUSCRIPTS BIBLIOGRAPHY VITA ii ABSTRACT The piano music of Cuba encompasses a large body of valuable music that is yet to be explored fully on the international scene by performers and teachers. The purpose of this volume is to provide a guide that will enable performers and teachers to quickly reference, and more fully investigate the available music of Cuban composers. This is accomplished by providing description and levels of selected Cuban piano works from the eighteenth through twentieth centuries in catalogue format, as well as by providing descriptions of dances and dance forms found in the included literature. iii INTRODUCTION Methods and Catalogue Procedures The piano music of Cuba is relatively unknown outside of its mother country, and very few Cuban composers are widely recognized in the international professional and pedagogical realms. This lack of knowledge may be attributed partly to the lack of resources on Cuban piano music. There is very little Cuban repertoire in the standard teaching literature in America, only one known dictionary in English dedicated to Cuban music, no known catalogue of Cuban piano literature in any language, and very few historical resources available in the United States even fewer of which are in English. Most Cuban composers have not been written about in any depth, and many of the works available can only be found in manuscript form. In recent years catalogues and other resources have been compiled on piano works from South America, while few resources have dealt with the piano work of Central American and Caribbean countries such as Cuba. Performers and teachers wishing to investigate this music have very few resources available to them that are able to provide more than only the best-known of Cuban composers names, such as Lecuona or Ardévol. As the United States continues to gain a larger Hispanic population, there may be a heightened interest in music from this part of the world. The piano music of Cuba encompasses a large body of music that is yet to be fully explored on the international scale by performers and teachers. The purpose of this volume is to provide a guide that will enable performers and teachers to quickly reference, and more fully explore the music of Cuban composers. This will be accomplished by describing and leveling selected Cuban piano works from the eighteenth through twentieth centuries in catalogue format. As well, descriptions of dances and dance forms found in the literature will be provided. 1 The selection of pieces has been confined to those manuscripts and scores available for interlibrary loan through the worldwide system. The purpose of this limitation is to ensure that all works listed in the catalogue are widely available to teachers, students, and performers within the United States. Publication bibliographic details for all works included within the catalogue are given in the Scores and Manuscripts Bibliography appendix, and are numbered so as to be referenced quickly. All works are listed in alphabetical order, first by composer and then by title of composition. Basic biographical information is given for each composer. Included with the description of each work is an English translation of the title (if necessary), date of composition (if available), key and time signature, initial expressive or tempo markings, and length of piece. Descriptions of pieces include level of difficulty and musical or technical concerns within the music. Specific dance forms and styles embodied in these works are referenced as necessary throughout the catalogue, and are described in further detail in the Descriptions of Dances and Dance Forms chapter. An index of all composers covered within this catalogue is also included as an appendix, along with dates and references to page numbers. An index of compositions, listed by level, designed to help the teacher quickly find pieces at any given level, is also given in an additional appendix. Information that is easily shorthanded is listed at the beginning of each entry, including level, score source and bibliographic reference, key signature, time signature, beginning expressive marking (if any), and length. For example: Level 7, B24, E Minor, 6/8, Andante, 2 pp. 2 The Leveling System Levels of difficulty have been determined by the author using Jane Magrath s system of leveling as a comparative guide. The reason for using Magrath s system is that familiarity with her Guide to Standard Teaching and Performing Literature is common among piano teachers in the United States. Because any leveling system allows for some ambiguity, the opinions of three outside piano professors 1 are also taken into account for many of the works within this catalogue. Works that fall beyond level 10 of Magrath s system are labeled Advanced. Many of the advanced works are best suited to the seasoned performer. For convenience, a short, comparative guide for levels 1-10 is presented below. 2 These examples are by no means concrete, as there may be an overlap between the levels with respect to technical and musical concerns. It is also recognized by the author that certain pieces named below may be seen by some educators as being a level above or below where they have been listed. Level One: Technical and musical concerns include consistency, parallel and contrary motion, similar or repeated articulation patterns, staccato, and legato. There are no sixteenth notes and any change in hand position is slow. Representative pieces are selections from 60 Pieces, Part I and Part II ( Carefree is an example) by Turk, The Very Easiest Studies, Op. 190 by Kohler, selections from Bartok s First Term at the Piano and his Mikrokosmos Book I, and Kabalevsky s A Funny Event, Op. 39, No. 7 from 24 Pieces for Children. Level Two: Technical and musical concerns include modified Alberti bass, increasing independence of the hands, more subtle dynamic contrasts, more frequent hand position changes, 1 Thanks are given to Dr. Victoria Johnson, Michael Gurt, and Dr. Pamela Pike. 2 Leveling of the majority of these pieces was done by Jane Magrath. Jane Magrath, The Pianist s Guide to Standard Teaching and Performance Literature An Invaluable Resource of Piano Literature from Baroque through Contemporary Periods for Teachers, Students and Performers (Van Nuys: Alfred Publishing Co., 1995). 3 and hand expansion out of a five-finger pattern. Representative pieces are Rameau s Menuet and Rondo, selections from Turk s 60 Pieces, Part I and Part II, Beethoven s Ecossaise in G Major, selections from Schumann s Album for the Young Op. 68, No. 1 (such as Melody ) and No. 2 (such as Soldier s March ), Gurlitt s The First Lessons, Op. 117, Selections from Kabalevsky s 24 Pieces for Children, Op. 39, and selections from Bartok s For Children, Volume I, First Term at the Piano, and Mikrokosmos, Volume I. Level Three: Technical and musical concerns include Alberti bass accompaniment, voicing, and articulation that is not necessarily the same in both hands. Representative pieces include Bach s Minuet in G and Air from the Anna Magdalena Bach Notebook, Duncombe s Sonatina in C Major, Attwood s Sonatina in G Major, Latour s Sonatina in C Major, selections from Schumann s Album for the Young, Op. 68 ( The Wild Rider and The Humming Song are examples), selections from Gurlitt s Album for the Young, Op. 140 ( March, Morning Song, and Bright is the Sky are examples), selections from Kabalevsky s Children s Pieces, Op. 27 ( Waltz, A Little Song, and Toccatina are examples), 24 Pieces for Children, Op. 39 ( Country Dance, Galop, Prelude, and Clowns are examples), selections from Gretchaninoff s Children s Album, Op. 98, and Rebikov s The Bear. Level Four: Technical and musical concerns include beginning to develop voicing within one hand, Baroque and contrapuntal hand independence, varying rhythmic patterns, accidentals, and more sophisticated expression. Representative pieces are Bach s Minuets in G Major, Musette in D Major, and Prelude in C Major from the Anna Magdalena Bach Notebook, Beethoven s Country Dance, German Dances, and Sonatina in F, Anh 5, No. 2, Clementi s Sonatina, Op. 36, No. 1, selections from Burgmüller s Op. 100 ( Arabesque is an example), 4 selections from Kabalevsky s Children s Pieces, Op. 27 ( Playing Ball and A Sad Story are examples), and selections from Bartok s First Term at the Piano and For Children. Level Five: Technical and musical concerns include varied accompaniment patterns and more frequent changes of harmonic rhythms, complex passagework, and more expressive markings. Representative pieces are Bach s Little Prelude in F Major from the Anna Magdalena Bach Notebook, Clementi s Op. 36, No. 2 and No. 5, Diabelli s Op. 151, No. 1, Burgmuller s Farewell, Op. 100, Grieg s Watchman s Song, Op. 12, No. 3 and Sailor Song, Op. 68, No. 1, and selections from Bartok s For Children. Level Six: Technical and musical concerns include longer literature, more musical sophistication and maturity, independence within the hand, and further use of polyphony. Representative pieces are Bach s Little Prelude in C Minor from the Anna Magdalena Bach Notebook, Clementi s Sonatina, Op. 36, No. 4, Kuhlau s Sonatina, Op. 55, No. 1, Grieg s Puck, Op. 71, No. 3, Chopin s Preludes in E Minor and A Major, Starer s Sketches in Color (of which Pink is an example), and selections from Bartok s Mikrokosmos, Volume IV. Level Seven: Technical and musical concerns include more sophisticated use of the pedal (requiring even more use of the ear, rather than only following the pedal markings in the score), use of rubato, and unpredictable harmonic progressions. Representative pieces are Bach s Invention No. 1 in C Major, No. 4 in D Minor, No. 8 in F Major, and No. 14 in B-flat Major, many Scarlatti sonatas, Beethoven s Bagatelles Op. 119, Haydn s Pieces for Musical Clock, Sonatinas Hob. XVI: 8, 10 and 11, Diabelli s sonatinas, several of Mendelssohn s Songs Without Words, Chopin s Prelude in C Minor, selections from Schumann s Album for the Young, Op. 68 and Album Leaves, Op. 124, No. 4 ( Waltz ), Prokofiev s Music for Young People, Op. 65, Tcherepnin s Bagatelle No. 1, Batok s Sonatina ( Bagpipes, The Bear, and the Finale ) and 5 selections from Mikrokosmos Volumes IV and V, and selections from Dello Joio s Lyric Pieces for the Young. Level Eight: Technical and musical concerns include increasing contrapuntal complexities, voice independence, and expressive depth. Representative pieces include many of Bach s two part inventions, Mozart s Viennese Sonatinas, Ahn 229, No. 1, 3, and 4, selections from Schumann s Kinderszenen (such as Traumerei ), Chopin s Waltz in B Minor, and selections from Debussy s Children s Corner (such as Golliwog s Cakewalk ). Level Nine: Technical and musical concerns include more complex contrapuntal lines and voicing, more key and time signature changes, and more complex rhythms. Representative pieces are Bach s easiest Sinfonias, several of Scarlatti s and Haydn s sonatas, Mozart s Sonata K. 545, Chopin s Mazurka in B-flat Major, Raindrop Prelude, and Nocturne in E-flat Major, Copland s Cat and Mouse, Debussy s Girl with the Flaxen Hair, many of Shostakovich s 24 Preludes, and several of Kabalevsky s 24 Preludes. Level 10: Technical and musical concerns include much greater use of changing time and key signatures, as well as complex rhythms, harmonies, and voicing. Representative pieces include the majority of Bach s Sinfonias, many of Scarlatti s sonatas, Beethoven s Sonata Op. 49, Haydn s Sonata Hob XVI:23, Mozart s Sonata K. 283, Chopin s Waltz in A-flat Major and Nocturne in E Minor, Op. Posthumous, Brahms Op. 118, No. 2, Debussy s Claire de lune and Preludes ( Minstrels and The Sunken Cathedral are examples), Bartok s From the Diary of a Fly, Mikrokosmos Book VI, Prokofiev s Sonatina Pastorale, Op. 59, No. 3, and Cowell s The Banshee. 6 HISTORICAL OVERVIEW A Brief History of Music in Cuba Very little is known about the music of the aboriginal Cubans. After 1510, with Diego Velazquez s conquest of the country, the Indo-Cubans were exterminated, and their music was lost. Cuban composer Eduardo Sanchez de Fuentes wrote that, in the formation of Cuban music no aboriginal element could be an influence, for it does not exist. 3 By 1570, the native Taino and Ciboney Indians had died out, along with their language, culture, and music. 4 By the midtwentieth century practically nothing remained of the chants, dances, and ceremonials of the aboriginal Cubans. 5 The music now associated with Cuba has its roots in the musical traditions of the Spanish settlers and African slaves, such as the Yoruba, the Congolese, and others, who brought various dance forms to the island. The largest ethnic group among the slaves was the Yoruba, who largely came from present-day Nigeria. While much of their culture was lost during the years of slavery, their religion and music remained intact. The other primary ethnic group among the slaves was the Congolese, from Central Africa, whose rhythms were simpler and fewer than those of the Yoruba, and whose dances were more vigorous. 6 3 Lazare Saminsky, Living Music of the Americas (New York: Howell, Soskin and Crown Publishers, 1949), Peter Manuel, Caribbean Currents Caribbean Music from Rumba to Reggae (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1995), Lazare Saminsky, Living Music of the Americas (New York: Howell, Soskin and Crown Publishers, 1949), Peter Manuel, Caribbean Currents Caribbean Music from Rumba to Reggae (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1995), By the end of the eighteenth century the country s music had been further developed by the influx of refugees from the Haitian revolution. From this era, the genres most associated with modern-day Cuba arose, including the son, danzon, habanera, guajira, and conga. During the end of the nineteenth century and first half of the twentieth century there was also a large amount of musical output by Spanish composers who had immigrated to Cuba, particularly to Havana and Santiago de Cuba, and had been academically trained in Spain. These composers brought with them a solid foundation in technique and composition. Immigrants also were streaming to Cuba from French Haiti, and later from Louisiana. European immigrants introduced opera and zarzuela 7 companies from Italy and Spain, and in the chapels of Havana and Santiago de Cuba, church music was being modernized by composers such as Esteban Salas y Castro ( ), and Juan París ( ). 8 Between 1868 and 1898, Cubans rebelled against the Spanish rule. The Spanish government abolished slavery beginning gradually in 1880 and then completely in 1886, which resulted in the freedom of some quarter of a million blacks. These former slaves, who did not own land, migrated to the outskirts of large urban centers, such as Havana, and their musical culture had a strong influence on Cuban composers. Also during this time before 1871, roughly 150,000 Chinese laborers were brought to Cuba, mostly from Canton, 9 and many settled in 7 A zarzuela is a Cuban operetta whose popularity peaked in Spain in the second half of the nineteenth century. It became very important in Cuba in reflecting the country s social and historic problems in a musical framework. Cuban Music from A to Z, s.v. zarzuela. 8 Dale Olson and Daniel Sheehy, eds., The Garland Handbook of Latin American Music, Second Edition (New York: Routledge, 2000), Canton is the older name for Guangdong, a province in the south of China. 8 Havana. Unlike the freed slaves, the Chinese tended towards tight-knit groups, resulting in a much smaller sphere of musical influence on the Cuban culture. 10 While the majority of Cuba s musical output originated from dance and folk music, European ideals also influenced the Cuban style. Miguel Velazquez in the sixteenth century, and Esteban Salas in the eighteenth century, were both significant Cuban composers educated in the European style, and in the nineteenth century Nicolas Ruiz Espadero wrote virtuoso piano works in the European style. With the nineteenth century also came a large wave of nationalism (marked by traditional Cuban rhythms, percussion instruments, and patriotic lyrics and titles) in the musical output by Cuban composers, most noticeably Manuel Saumell and Ignacio Cervantes. The first danzon was created at the end of the nineteenth century by Miguel Failde, and the son and canción could be heard across the island. The first distinctly nationalistic Cuban music is thought to have emerged between 1790 and National musical organizations and groups were developed in the beginning of the twentieth century that allowed Cuban music to become known and played across the country and internationally. Among the first national composers to become well known were Eduardo Sanchez de Fuentes and Ernesto Lecuona. They were followed closely by composers Amadeo Roldán and Alejandro Garcia Caturla, who both took a great interest in incorporating Afro- Hispanic Cuban folklore in their music. During the time frame of , known as the Republic period in Cuba, composers began to turn once again to a nationalistic musical culture. With the rise of nationalism also 10 Ibid. 11 Dale Olson and Daniel Sheehy, eds., The Garland Handbook of Latin American Music, Second Edition (New York: Routledge, 2000), came the beginning of Cuba s musical influence beyond its own borders. 12 Alejandro García Caturla and Amadeo Roldán were both closely associated with this emergence of a strong nationalistic awareness and incorporated modern compositional techniques, in addition to the folk and dance music genres that had come before. 13 By 1950, the nationalistic movement was being replaced by neoclassicism, a trend that was advanced by the Grupo de Renovación, headed by José Ardévol. José Ardevol, a significant composer and teacher, led his students from the more traditional neoclassical approach to a more modern national approach. One of the best known composers outside of Cuba in the later twentieth century was Aurelio de la Vega, who explored both atonal and electronic styles and media. Another political revolution in 1959 resulted in the creation of a free educational system whose curriculum included the arts, and an Amateur Movement began to foster, teach, and follow up with amateur musical groups of all kinds. It was during this period that contemporary compositional techniques, such as aleatorism and neoserialism, became popular among Cuban composers. 14 The Importance of Dance Forms in Cuban Music In the nineteenth-century Cuban dance music was influenced strongly by the presence of visiting European dance companies. Other influences included Cuban folk and popular music 12 Dale Olson and Daniel Sheehy, eds., The Garland Handbook of Latin American Music, Second Edition (New York: Routledge, 2000), Ibid., Ibid., and African music. The danzas for piano, composed by Manuel Saumell and Ignacio Cervantes, are excellent examples of this uniquely, multicultural Cuban style. 15 Dance forms also underwent change during the twentieth century, such as the son, which continued to evolve in the 1940 s with the emergence of rhythms such as the mambo and chacha-
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