Educating Leaders for a Global Society. Stephanie Bell-Rose, the goldman sachs foundation Vishakha Desai, the asia society - PDF

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Educating Leaders for a Global Society Stephanie Bell-Rose, the goldman sachs foundation Vishakha Desai, the asia society Executive Summary p. 2 introduction p. 4 section i p. 6 section ii p. 26 section
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Educating Leaders for a Global Society Stephanie Bell-Rose, the goldman sachs foundation Vishakha Desai, the asia society Executive Summary p. 2 introduction p. 4 section i p. 6 section ii p. 26 section iii p. 32 We live in one world. What we do affects others, and what others do affects us as never before. To recognize that we are all members of a world community and that we all have responsibilities to each other is not romantic rhetoric, but modern economic and social reality. The Goldman Sachs Foundation and Asia Society are grateful for essential contributions to the research and writing of this report by Edward B. Fiske, former education editor for The New York Times. Department for Education and Skills (England). Putting the World into World-Class Education: An international strategy for education, skills and children s services. 3 Executive Summary Today s students will be working in a global marketplace and living in a global society. In order to succeed and to become leaders in this new world, they must acquire a far different set of knowledge, skills and perspectives than previous generations. They must be prepared to trade with, work alongside and communicate with persons from radically different backgrounds than their own. They must be trained to understand and confront complex new global threats, from terrorism to a global flu pandemic. In short, we need to develop a whole new definition of education for success in the early 21st century. This conclusion may have been drawn before, but the urgency with which we must act has never been more acute. Our economic strength, national security, the health of our democratic institutions and cultural vitality depend upon appropriately training the next generation of leaders in all sectors. Hundreds of local schools in the U.S. have already revamped their teaching and learning to accommodate these new demands through means such as international magnet programs, new language programs and integrating international education into the entire range of subject areas, from social studies and literature to math and science. The task now is to extend international education to all primary and secondary schools. For students preparing for success and leadership in today s world, knowledge about the rest of the world is no longer a luxury; it is a necessity. The business, philanthropy and public policy communities all have important roles to play in preparing students to succeed in this new environment. They must also work together in important common strategic tasks such as building a language pipeline, developing a corps of teachers skilled in international education, modernizing our nation s high schools, and promoting the use of new technologies and distance learning across the board. For students preparing for success and leadership in today s world, knowledge about the rest of the world is no longer a luxury; it is a necessity. 5 introduction Nearly 50 years ago school leaders in Glastonbury, Conn. decided that the world was getting smaller and began requiring every student to become fluent in a foreign language starting in the first grade. Glastonbury was ahead of its time, but it now has a lot of company. From Penobscot Bay to Puget Sound, schools at all levels from kindergarten through high school are updating their teaching to take heed of the fact that their graduates will be living in an interconnected world and working in a global economy. After surveying local business leaders, the John Stanford International School in Seattle began requiring elementary school students to spend half of their learning time in either Japanese or Spanish. Recognizing that graduates will need to know how to work with colleagues from other cultures, the International School of the Americas in San Antonio, Tex. assigns juniors to carry out a collaborative biology project with students from a sister school in Japan. Much of the work is done face-toface by means of video-conferencing. Global content is finding its way into all curricular areas, from social studies to science. Eighth and ninth grade science students at Exploris Middle School in Raleigh, N.C. study what happened at Lake Nyos in Cameroon in August 1986, when a CO2 explosion claimed 1800 victims. They read about the disaster, analyze the interaction of vinegar and baking soda in the lab and then do research on its social consequences. Students at Evanston Township High School in Illinois delve into the subtleties of conflict resolution by taking part in a mock peace conference on Kashmir. In their science classes they study the global dimensions of wildlife migration, nutrition and communicable diseases. Above all, educators are coming to understand that U.S. students can no longer understand their own history and traditions without reference to the rest of the world. Sophomores at the Metropolitan Learning Center in Hartford, Conn. study the U.S. Constitution and meet the statewide civics requirement in the process by comparing it to similar documents in India, Japan, South Africa and Iraq. These schools are among those whose pioneering work has been recognized through The Goldman Sachs Foundation Prizes for Excellence in International Education. Along with hundreds of other schools across the U.S. they have set out to put the world in world-class education. They are embarked on nothing less than a rethinking of what it means to be an educated American in the 21st century. Training tomorrow s leaders is vitally important, and it is critical that efforts to develop young American s knowledge and skills be carried out successfully. As the next generation moves into leadership positions in commerce, education, government, the arts and other fields, today s students will need a different set of knowledge, skills and perspectives than previous generations. Success for them will be measured by their capacity to comprehend how the U.S. interacts with other countries and cultures, to function in a complex and ever-changing global environment, and to interact with persons whose background and perspectives bear little relation to their own. Preparing today s students for success and eventual leadership in the new global climate is the single most important task facing U.S. education at the dawn of the 21st century. 7 section i A Different World American schools have repeatedly showed a capacity to adapt to new conditions. The country adopted universal primary education in the mid-19th century in response to the shift from an agriculture-based to an industry-based economy. In the early 20th century, as the need for more sophisticated manufacturing skills became apparent, the U.S. led the world in establishing public high schools an investment that helped ensure U.S. dominance of the global economy in the 20th century. The G.I. Bill sparked a vast expansion of the American system of higher education after World War II. The result was that, as the world moved toward an informationbased economy, the U.S. boasted the strongest and most diverse network of colleges and universities of any country. American schools met the challenges of the post- Sputnik period by investing heavily in science and language instruction, mostly at the high school level, and the decision to lodge federally-supported research activities in regular universities rather than follow the European model of separate facilities contributed to the emergence of dozens of world-class research universities that have set the standard for quality higher education around the world. In recent years, however, two significant trends have challenged America s longstanding educational hegemony: First, other countries have followed the U.S. lead and invested heavily in secondary and higher education. As a result, the U.S. no longer leads the world either in the proportion of its young people who complete high school or in the proportion who move on to two- or four-year colleges or technical institutions. U.S. colleges and universities also face increasing competition for the world s best students from institutions in Europe, China, Australia and other nations that have aggressively built up their own tertiary sector, both as a means of serving their own needs and as a way of enhancing foreign trade. It s not that American higher education has lagged; it s only that the rest of the world has caught up. Second, and even more important, is the impact of globalization. In his new book The World is Flat, New York Times columnist Thomas Friedman explains that he arrived at his central metaphor after hearing a software executive in India explain that the world s economy was being leveled because there were no more barriers to entry. Thanks to the communications revolution, an entrepreneur in India has the same access to global production facilities and markets as a U.S. counterpart. Friedman quotes Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft, as saying that 30 years ago, if you had the choice of being born a genius in Mumbai or Shanghai or an average person in Poughkeepsie, you would have chosen the latter because your chances of living a prosperous and fulfilled life were much greater. Now, Gates says, I would rather be a genius born in China than an average guy born in Poughkeepsie. The U.S. no longer leads the world either in the proportion of its young people who complete high school or in the proportion who move on to two- or fouryear colleges or technical institutions. 8 Section One Rising Above the Gathering Storm, a bipartisan report on U.S. preparedness jointly sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine, notes that, because of globalization, American workers in virtually every sector must now face competitors who live just a mouse-click away in Ireland, Finland, India or dozens of other nations whose economies are growing. 1 For these reasons American education faces yet another major change in the conditions in which it operates one that is just as dramatic as those that accompanied the movement from an agrarian to an industrial society in the 19th century and the emergence of a post-industrial and knowledge-based society in the 20th. G L O B E Established on Earth Day in 1994, GLOBE offers hundreds of thousands of students around the world opportunities to work in partnership with professional scientists. The Nature of Globalization Following guidelines created by National GLOBE also supports direct contact between Four aspects of the emerging global environment are relevant to understanding the new global context and developing a strategy for confronting it. 1. a global economy Science Foundation-funded scientists, the students and science professionals take scientifically valid measures relating to the atmosphere, hydrology, soils and land cover. participating students and teachers through , online forums and Web chats. It has also convened two major international youth conferences where students had the opportunity Analysis reported that U.S. companies realized $315 billion in overseas profits in 2004 a figure that is up 78 percent over the decade and that far outpaces the growth of domestic profits by U.S. companies. In today s global environment ideas, capital, trade, workers and the production of goods and services flow seamlessly and relentlessly across national borders. In April 2005 the Bureau of Economic Analysis reported that U.S. companies realized $315 billion in overseas profits in 2004 a figure that is up 78 percent over the decade and that far outpaces the growth of domestic profits by U.S. companies. 2 Wal-Mart imported $18 billion worth of goods from 5,000 suppliers in China last year, while U.S. companies were making $315 billion in profits overseas up 26 percent from the year before. Already, one in five U.S. manufacturing jobs is tied to exports. 3 General Motors sells cars in 200 countries, and executives project that half of future growth in the global auto industry will be in eight developing countries. 4 General Electric executives Participants then report their data through the Internet, make maps and graphs, enter into online discussions and then collaborate with scientists and students from other GLOBE schools on using this data. Current projects include one in which students from the United States, Croatia, China, the Czech Republic, Lebanon, Finland and Thailand collect data on weather patterns to collaboratively study trends in global climate systems. In another, students in North Carolina, Virginia and West Virginia to present their research projects, learn about the research of peers around the world, take measurements in a new environment, and learn about different cultures. GLOBE is funded in part by the National Aviation and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation, and it is operated by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research at Colorado State University. expect that 60 percent of revenue growth will come from emerging markets over the collect and share data on the water quality of next decade, compared with 20 percent in the previous decade. 5 the New River. A parallel project focuses on Growth trajectories in Asia are particularly striking. According to the Office of the watershed of the Rhine River in Europe. Trade and Industry Information at the U.S. Department of Commerce, total U.S. exports to Asia grew by 24 percent over the last five years from $170 billion to $210 billion. 1 Friedman, Thomas L. Keeping Us In the Race, New York Times, October 14, Hilsenrath, Jon E. U.S. Multinationals Reap Overseas Bounty, Wall Street Journal, April 4, U.S. Census Bureau, Exports from Manufacturing Establishments: 2001 (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, July 2004), Table 2, p Rick Wagoner. Remarks to Conference on Global Challenges and U.S. Higher Education, Duke University, January 24, Hilsenrath, Jon E. U.S. Multinationals Reap Overseas Bounty, Wall Street Journal, April 4, 2005. 10 Section One 11 In 2005 an estimated 400,000 American IRS returns were prepared in India; two of Microsoft s four major research centers are in Beijing and Bangalore. U.S. high school and college graduates will thus be selling to the world, buying from the world and working for international companies. Thanks to the impact of software that facilitates decentralized production, they will be competing with people on the other side of the world for some jobs. In 2005 an estimated 400,000 American IRS returns were prepared in India; two of Microsoft s four major research centers are in Beijing and Bangalore. These graduates will also be managing foreign nationals and working alongside them on teams that communicate across multiple cultures and languages. Emerging interconnectedness also brings the promise of new markets and new levels of prosperity. Taking advantage of these opportunities requires a new kind of work force one that is internationally competent. The forces of globalization are stressful, and much attention has been paid to the movement of jobs out of the U.S. But the emerging interconnectedness also brings the promise of new markets and new levels of prosperity. Taking advantage of these opportunities requires a new kind of work force one that is internationally competent. 2. national security For most of its history the U.S. has based its sense of security around its military and industrial strength and the luxury of being separated from most potential enemies by two oceans. The attacks of September 11, along with subsequent events in Afghanistan, Iraq, North Korea and elsewhere, have made it clear that such thinking is out-of-date. The threats now facing the U.S. are both more complex and more global. Several years ago the Central Intelligence Agency issued a report describing the impact of the HIV/AIDS pandemic as a threat to our national security. Other forces with the capacity to undermine peace and stability include terrorism, poverty, nuclear proliferation, the possibility of a global flu epidemic, global warming and other forms of environmental degradation. There is a dangerous symbiosis among these threats. Poverty can drive people and nations to desperate acts, as can a sense of cultural hopelessness. Thus the U.S. needs both a broader definition of human and national security and more sophisticated tools for dealing with it. The U.S. must develop political and business leaders who can be effective messengers around the world regarding our values of democracy and free enterprise. The U.S. must develop political and business leaders who can be effective messengers around the world regarding our values of democracy and free enterprise. Security agencies need people with enhanced global knowledge and with new skills, such as the ability to speak strategically important languages such as Arabic, Chinese and Persian-Farsi. Military personnel need to know how to use force in ways that do not become counter-productive. As an Army major in Iraq commented, We had terrific situational awareness; what we lacked was cultural awareness democracy and citizenship Today s students will be citizens in an interconnected world. As a recent report by the Department for Education and Skills in England declared: We live in one world. What we do affects others, and what others do affects us as never before. To recognize that we are all members of a world community and that we all have responsibilities to each other is not romantic rhetoric, but modern economic and social reality. 7 As future citizens, today s students will need to understand how American interests are frequently dependent on forces outside our borders. But they will also be called upon to provide leadership on sustainable development, conflict resolution, social justice and human rights issues that may be local in origin but whose impact is felt around the world, including in the U.S. Ultimately, this is one of the most compelling rationales for steeping the entire curriculum in international perspectives and skills. Future leaders in all sectors will require a moral, academic and tactical framework to assess the impact of global interdependence. There is no better place to start than in our schools. 6 The National Language Conference: An Introduction to America s Language Needs and Resources, Briefing Document, University of Maryland, Center for Advanced Study of Language, June Department for Education and Skills (England). Putting the World into World-Class Education: An international strategy for education, skills and children s services. 13 I N T E R N AT I O N A L E D U C AT I O N I N O T H E R C O U N T R I E S While U.S. educators and policy makers look for ways to expand international education, their colleagues around the world are by no means standing still. A few examples of activities taking place in other countries: 20 LANGUAGES Most European countries start a EXCHANGES China is developing an increasing first foreign language in the elementary grades, international focus in its schools. Education and many are increasing their requirements leaders study education practices in other for second foreign languages. China has made countries. Teachers are encouraged to study English its second language and has begun abroad, and schools are strongly urged to teaching it starting in grade three. form sister school partnerships with schools in other countries, including the U.S. TEACHING ABOUT ASIA In the early 1990s the Australian government decided to engage more T E C H N O L O G Y South Korea, Singapore and deeply with Asia for economic and other reasons. Taiwan have developed master plans to put Foundations were established to promote the high-speed computers in schools as a means study of Asia and Asian languages in schools. of connecting students to world knowledge. Today about half of Australian schools teach STUDY ABROAD Whereas 0.5 percent of about Asia in a systematic way, and 23 percent U.
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