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THIS IS A TRADITIONAL & OPTIONAL ASSIGNMENT IT MUST BE PRINTED AND COMPLETED IN INK! Name: Class Period: Due Date: / / Guided Reading & Analysis: The Constitution and The New Republic, Chapter
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THIS IS A TRADITIONAL & OPTIONAL ASSIGNMENT IT MUST BE PRINTED AND COMPLETED IN INK! Name: Class Period: Due Date: / / Guided Reading & Analysis: The Constitution and The New Republic, Chapter 6- The Constitution and New Republic, pp Reading Assignment: Ch. 6 AMSCO or other resource for content corresponding to Period 3. Purpose: This guide is not only a place to record notes as you read, but also to provide a place and structure for reflections and analysis using higher level thinking skills with new knowledge gained from the reading. Basic Directions: 1. Pre-Read: Read the prompts/questions within this guide before you read the chapter. 2. Skim: Flip through the chapter and note the titles and subtitles. Look at images and their read captions. Get a feel for the content you are about to read. 3. Read/Analyze: Read the chapter. Remember, the goal is not to fish for a specific answer(s) to reading guide questions, but to consider questions in order to critically understand what you read! 4. Write Write your notes and analysis in the spaces provided. Key Concepts FOR PERIOD 3: Key Concept 3.1: British attempts to assert tighter control over its North American colonies and the colonial resolve to pursue self-government led to a colonial independence movement and the Revolutionary War. Key Concept 3.2: The American Revolution s democratic and republican ideals inspired new experiments with different forms of government. Key Concept 3.3: Migration within North America and competition over resources, boundaries, and trade intensified conflicts among peoples and nations. Section 1: HIPP+ Source: Articles of Confederation : March 1, 1781, National Archives, Public Domain VII. When land forces are raised by any State for the common defense, all officers of or under the rank of colonel, shall be appointed by the legislature of each State respectively, by whom such forces shall be raised, or in such manner as such State shall direct, and all vacancies shall be filled up by the State which first made the appointment. VIII. All charges of war, and all other expenses that shall be incurred for the common defense or general welfare, and allowed by the United States in Congress assembled, shall be defrayed out of a common treasury, which shall be supplied by the several States in proportion to the value of all land within each State, granted or surveyed for any person, as such land and the buildings and improvements thereon shall be estimated according to such mode as the United States in Congress assembled, shall from time to time direct and appoint. The taxes for paying that proportion shall be laid and levied by the authority and direction of the legislatures of the several States within the time agreed upon by the United States in Congress assembled. Historical Context: Choose 1 of the following: Intended Audience: Author s Purpose: Author s Point of View: (Image captured from arizonapatriot.com) +Other Context (Similar in Kind, In a Different Time) Section 2 Guided Reading, pp As you read the chapter, jot down your notes in the middle column. Consider your notes to be elaborations on the Objectives and Main Ideas presented in the left column. When you finish the section, analyze what you read by answering the question in the right hand column. 1. The United States Under the Articles pp Key Concepts & Main Ideas Notes Analysis After experiencing the limitations of the Articles of Confederation, American political leaders wrote a new Constitution based on the principles of federalism and separation of powers, crafted a Bill of Rights, and continued their debates about the proper balance between liberty and order. Difficulties over trade, finances, and interstate and foreign relations, as well as internal unrest, led to calls for significant revisions to the Articles of Confederation and a stronger central government. Benjamin Franklin quote and intro paragraph The United States Under the Articles, Foreign Problems Economic Weaknesses and Interstate Quarrels The Annapolis Convention List three motivations of those organizing and attending the Annapolis Convention What was the conclusion reached at the Annapolis Convention? Are you using ink? Remember no pencil! 2. Drafting the Constitution at Philadelphia, pp Key Concepts & Main Ideas Notes Analysis Delegates from the states worked through a series of compromises to form a Constitution for a new national government, while providing limits on federal power. Drafting the Constitution at Philadelphia The Delegates Key Issues Why did James Madison and Alexander Hamilton want to draft an entirely new document rather than just amending the Articles of Confederation? Why did Rhode Island refuse to participate? Continued on next page Delegates from the states worked through a series of compromises to form a Constitution for a new national government, while providing limits on federal power. Representation Slavery. Trade Explain the role of compromise at the Convention in Philadelphia. The Presidency Why did the framers decide only 9 of 13 states would need to ratify the Constitution, rather than 13 of 13 needed for the Articles of Confederation? Ratification 3. Federalists and Anti-Federalists, pp Key Concepts & Main Ideas Delegates from the states worked through a series of compromises to form a Constitution for a new national government, while providing limits on federal power. Notes Federalists and Anti-Federalists The Federalists Papers Outcome Debating the Constitution (comparing Federalists and Anti-Federalists Chart) Leaders Arguments Analysis What was the most significant argument of the Anti- Federalists? How did George Clinton respond differently than Benjamin Franklin to the proposition that the new federal government have a strong executive branch? Look up (Google) and List the writers of the Federalist Papers Strategy.. Advantages Disadvantages List the writers of the Anti-Federalist Responses Continue on next page Delegates from the states worked through a series of compromises to form a Constitution for a new national government, while providing limits on federal power. Virginia Final States Thomas Jefferson was not at the Convention. He was serving as minister to France and was abroad. He called the Convention An Assembly of Demigods. Does this indicate a tendency toward the Federalist or Anti-Federalist side of the Constitutional debate? 4. Adding the Bill of Rights, pp Key Concepts & Main Ideas Notes Analysis Calls during the ratification process for greater guarantees of rights resulted in the addition of a Bill of Rights shortly after the Constitution was adopted. Adding the Bill of Rights Arguments for a Bill of Rights Arguments Against a Bill of Rights The First Ten Amendments How does the Bill of Rights differ today than their original intent in 1791? Which Amendment was the most important to the Anti-Federalists? Explain why. First Amendment Second Amendment Third Amendment Which Amendment is the most important to you? Explain why. Fourth Amendment Fifth Amendment Sixth Amendment Seventh Amendment Which Amendment do you think is at the highest risk of being removed? Explain why. Eighth Amendment Ninth Amendment Tenth Amendment 5. Washington s Presidency pp Key Concepts & Main Ideas Notes Analysis In response to domestic and international tensions, the new United States debated and formulated foreign policy initiatives and asserted an international presence. The continued presence of European powers in North America challenged the United States to find ways to safeguard its borders, maintain neutral trading rights, and promote its economic interests. The French Revolution s spread throughout Europe and beyond helped fuel Americans debate not only about the nature of the United States domestic order, but also about its proper role in the world. The American Revolution and the ideals set forth in the Declaration of Independence had reverberations in France, Haiti, and Latin America, inspiring future rebellions. Washington s Presidency Organizing the Federal Government Executive Departments Federal Court System Hamilton s Financial Program Debt National Bank Foreign Affairs The French Revolution Summarize Thomas Jefferson s response to each of the following parts of Alexander Hamilton s financial plan. a. Assumption of debt b. Tariffs c. National bank d. Excise taxes How did Thomas Jefferson s view of the French Revolution differ from Alexander Hamilton s? Following Jay s Treaty, George Washington s approval rating, to borrow a modern phrase, plummeted and there was even talk in the House of impeaching him. Why was this treaty so offensive to some? As the first national administrations began to govern under the Constitution, continued debates about such issues as the relationship between the national government and the states, economic policy, and the conduct of foreign affairs led to the creation of political parties. Proclamation of Neutrality (1793) Citizen Genet The Jay Treaty (1794) The Pinckney Treaty (1795) Pinckney s Treaty was the silver lining on the cloud of Jay s Treaty. What was the long term impact of this treaty? Continued on next page Migration within North America, cooperative interaction, and competition for resources raised questions about boundaries and policies, intensified conflicts among peoples and nations, and led to contests over the creation of a multiethnic, multiracial national identity. The French withdrawal from North America and the subsequent attempt of various native groups to reassert their power over the interior of the continent resulted in new white Indian conflicts along the western borders of British and, later, the U.S. colonial settlement and among settlers looking to assert more power in interior regions. Migrants from within North America and around the world continued to launch new settlements in the West, creating new distinctive backcountry cultures and fueling social and ethnic tensions. The Spanish, supported by the bonded labor of the local Indians, expanded their mission settlements into California, providing opportunities for social mobility among enterprising soldiers and settlers that led to new cultural blending. Domestic Concerns American Indians Whiskey Rebellion Western Lands To what extent did the British honor the Treaty of 1783 which stated they recognized the United States and its new boundaries? What does this foreshadow? How did the Whiskey Rebellion end differently than Shays Rebellion? What is the significance of this difference? How did westward migration impact American Indians living in the Ohio Valley and Mississippi Territory? How did California differ from the United States in terms of interactions of Whites and Natives? 6. Political Parties, pp Key Concepts & Main Ideas Notes Analysis As the first national administrations began to govern under the Constitution, continued debates about such issues as the relationship between the national government and the states, economic policy, and the conduct of foreign affairs led to the creation of political parties. Political Parties Origins Differences Between the Parties Explain how the first two-party system illustrated the evolving American System and American identity. Main Idea: Although George Washington s Farewell Address warned about the dangers of divisive political parties and permanent foreign alliances, European conflict and tensions with Britain and France fueled increasingly bitter partisan debates throughout the 1790s. George Washington s FAREWELL ADDRESS - Read and highlight main points (make sure you note each key concept as summarized in your AMSCO test!) (Excerpts captured from http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/gwfare.htm) To the People of the United States. September 17th, Observe good faith and justice towards all Nations; cultivate peace and harmony with all. Religion and Morality enjoin this conduct; and can it be, that good policy does not equally enjoin it? It will be worthy of a free, enlightened, and, at no distant period, a great Nation, to give to mankind the magnanimous and too novel example of a people always guided by an exalted justice and benevolence. Who can doubt, that, in the course of time and things, the fruits of such a plan would richly repay any temporary advantages, which might be lost by a steady adherence to it? Can it be, that Providence has not connected the permanent felicity of a Nation with its Virtue? The experiment, at least, is recommended by every sentiment which ennobles human nature. Alas! Is it rendered impossible by its vices? 32 In the execution of such a plan, nothing is more essential, than that permanent, inveterate antipathies against particular Nations, and passionate attachments for others, should be excluded; and that, in place of them, just and amicable feelings towards all should be cultivated. The Nation, which indulges towards another an habitual hatred, or an habitual fondness, is in some degree a slave. It is a slave to its animosity or to its affection, either which is sufficient to lead it astray from its duty and its interest. Antipathy in one nation against another disposes each more readily to offer insult and injury, to lay hold of slight causes of umbrage, and to be haughty and intractable, when accidental or trifling occasions of dispute occur. Hence frequent collisions, obstinate, envenomed, and bloody contests. The Nation, prompted by ill-will and resentment, sometimes impels to war the Government, contrary to the best calculations of policy. The Government sometimes participates in the national propensity, and adopts through passion what reason would reject; at other times, it makes the animosity of the nation subservient projects of hostility instigated by pride, ambition, and other sinister and pernicious motives. The peace often, sometimes perhaps the liberty, of Nations has been the victim. 33 So likewise, a passionate attachment of one Nation for another produces a variety of evils. Sympathy for the favorite Nation, facilitating the illusion of an imaginary common interest, in cases where no real common interest exists, and infusing into one the enmities of the other, betrays the former into a participation in the quarrels and wars of the latter, without adequate inducement or justification. It leads also to concessions to the favorite Nation of privileges denied to others, which is apt doubly to injure the Nation making the concessions; by unnecessarily parting with what ought to have been retained; and by exciting jealousy, ill-will, and a disposition to retaliate, in the parties from whom equal privileges are withheld. And it gives to ambitious, corrupted, or deluded citizens, (who devote themselves to the favorite nation,) facility to betray or sacrifice the interests of their own country, without odium, sometimes even with popularity; gilding, with the appearances of a virtuous sense of obligation, a commendable deference for public opinion, or a laudable zeal for public good, the base or foolish compliances of ambition, corruption, or infatuation. 34 As avenues to foreign influence in innumerable ways, such attachments are particularly alarming to the truly enlightened and independent Patriot. How many opportunities do they afford to tamper with domestic factions, to practice the arts of seduction, to mislead public opinion, to influence or awe the Public Councils! Such an attachment of a small or weak, towards a great and powerful nation, dooms the former to be the satellite of the latter. 35 Against the insidious wiles of foreign influence (I conjure you to believe me, fellow-citizens,) the jealousy of a free people ought to be constantly awake; since history and experience prove, that foreign influence Is one of the most baneful foes of Republican Government. But that jealousy, to be useful, must be impartial; else it becomes the instrument of the very influence to be avoided, instead of a defense against it. Excessive partiality for one foreign nation, and excessive dislike of another, cause those whom they actuate to see danger only on one side, and serve to veil and even second the arts of influence on the other. Real patriots, who may resist the intrigues of the favorite, are liable to become suspected and odious; while its tools and dupes usurp the applause and confidence of the people, to surrender their interests. 36 The great rule of conduct for us, in regard to foreign nations, is, in extending our commercial relations, to have with them as little political connection as possible. So far as we have already formed engagements, let them be fulfilled with perfect good faith. Here let us stop. 37 Europe has a set of primary interests, which to us have none, or a very remote relation. Hence she must be engaged in frequent controversies, the causes of which are essentially foreign to our concerns. Hence, therefore, it must be unwise in us to implicate ourselves, by artificial ties, in the ordinary vicissitudes of her politics, or the ordinary combinations and collisions of her friendships or enmities. 38 Our detached and distant situation invites and enables us to pursue a different course. If we remain one people, under an efficient government, the period is not far off, when we may defy material injury from external annoyance; when we may take such an attitude as will cause the neutrality, we may at any time resolve upon, to be scrupulously respected; when belligerent nations, under the impossibility of making acquisitions upon us, will not lightly hazard the giving us provocation; when we may choose peace or war, as our interest, guided by justice, shall counsel. 39 Why forego the advantages of so peculiar a situation? Why quit our own to stand upon foreign ground? Why, by interweaving our destiny with that of any part of Europe, entangle our peace and prosperity in the toils of European ambition, rival ship, interest, humor, or caprice? 40 It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world; so far, I mean, as we are now at liberty to do it; for let me not be understood as capable of patronizing infidelity to existing engagements. I hold the maxim no less applicable to public than to private affairs, that honesty is always the best policy. I repeat it, therefore, let those engagements be observed in their genuine sense. But, in my opinion, it is unnecessary and would be unwise to extend them. 41 Taking care always to keep ourselves, by suitable establishments, on a respectable defensive posture, we may safely trust to temporary alliances for extraordinary emergencies. 42 Harmony, liberal intercourse with all nations, are recommended by policy, humanity, and interest. But even our commercial policy should hold an equal and impartial hand; neither seeking nor granting exclusive favors or preferences; consulting the natural course of things; diffusing and diversifying by gentle means the streams of commerce, but forcing nothing; establishing, with powers so disposed, in order to give trade a stable course, to define the rights of our merchants, and to enable the government to support them, conventional rules of intercourse, the best that present circumstances and mutual opinion will permit, but temporary, and liable to be from time to time abandoned or varied, as experience and circumstances shall dictate; constantly keeping in view, that it is folly in one nation to look for disinterested favors from another; that it must pay with a portion of its independence for whatever it may accept under that character; that, by such acceptance, it may place itself in the condition of having given equivalents for nominal favors, and yet of being reproached with ingratitude for not giving more. There can be no greater error than to expect or calculate upon real favors from nation to nation. It is an illusion, which experience must cure, which a just pride ought to discard. How long did the nation follow Washington s
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