Spontaneous Rupture of an Ovarian Dermoid Cyst Associated with Intra-Abdominal Chemical Peritonitis: Characteristic CT Findings and Literature Review - PDF

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Case Report Spontaneous Rupture of an Ovarian Dermoid Cyst Associated with Intra-Abdominal Chemical Peritonitis: Characteristic CT Findings and Literature Review Benjaporn Nitinavakarn MD*, Vitoon Prasertjaroensook
Case Report Spontaneous Rupture of an Ovarian Dermoid Cyst Associated with Intra-Abdominal Chemical Peritonitis: Characteristic CT Findings and Literature Review Benjaporn Nitinavakarn MD*, Vitoon Prasertjaroensook MD**, Churairat Kularkaew MD*** * Departments of Radiology, Srinagarind Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen ** Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Srinagarind Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen *** Departments of Pathology, Srinagarind Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen A case of ruptured ovarian dermoid is documented including the characteristic CT findings of chemical peritonitis based on the fatty peritoneal fluid content similar to that found in fatty dermoids. Keywords: Dermoid cyst, Matured teratoma, Chemical peritonitis, CT J Med Assoc Thai 2006; 89 (4): Full text. e-journal: Benign, cystic, ovarian teratoma (dermoid) is the most common ovarian neoplasm comprising between 10 and 25 percent of ovarian tumours (1). The dermoid (bilateral in 8-15 percent of patients) can occur at any age, but is more common during the reproductive years, especially among women under 30 years old (2). The tumour is slow-growing and is usually an accidental finding. The tumour may cause pain, dysmenorrhea and pelvic pressure. The main complications of benign cystic teratoma are torsion (16%) (3), malignant degeneration (2%) (4), rupture (1-2%) and infection (1%) (1,2,5). Herein, the authors present the CT findings of a case in which a cystic teratoma ruptured into the peritoneal cavity. Correspondence to : Nitinavakarn B, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand. Case Report A 41-year-old, nulliparous patient presented with a 3-week history of fever. She had a low-grade fever, abdominal pain, anemia, nausea, vomiting and watery diarrhea (2 times/day) for two weeks. After being given antibiotic treatment at a provincial hospital, the diarrhea subsided, but the fever and anaemia persisted. Three days before admission to Srinagarind Hospital, she experienced increased abdominal distension so she was admitted for fever with anaemia. This sort of history at presentation is common in Northeast Thailand. Her menstruation cycle was normal and there was no history of trauma. Roentgenographic findings A plain, abdominal radiograph (Fig. 1) revealed a large, pelvic, soft tissue mass containing a tooth-like calcification. A sonogram revealed a right-sided, intraabdominal echogenic, poorly-penetrated, adnexal mass. Ascites with some septation were observed. CT scan of the whole abdomen revealed a 14-cm, right, adnexal mass with fatty fluid and calcification (Fig. 2, 5), consistent with a cystic ovarian teratoma. The fatty-fluid level was significant, viz.: 1) a large collection of intra-abdominal ascites containing fatty fluid throughout the whole abdomen (Fig. 3, 5); 2) multiple fat droplets, fatty implants along the liver surface (Fig 4); and, 3) fat bubbles in the nondependent region. Additionally, ascites and omental infiltration (Fig. 6) were noted. Thickening and increased density of the greater omentum was demonstrated. All of the findings indicated a ruptured dermoid cyst with intra-abdominal chemical peritonitis. Surgery revealed clear, yellowish ascites with fat droplets as large as 1000 ml. Omental caking with adhesions to the anterior abdominal wall was observed. J Med Assoc Thai Vol. 89 No Fig. 1 Plain radiograph of abdomen showed a pelvic soft tissue mass (arrows) with a calcification (arrow head) Fig. 4 CT scan through the level of liver revealed fatty implantation at the liver surface (arrow heads) Fig. 2 Axial CT scan of pelvic cavity revealed a large right adnexal mass with fat-fluid content (arrow) and a calcification (arrow head) Fig. 5 Coronal reformation of the abdomen again showed the pelvic mass with calcification of characteristic dermoid tumor (M) with ascites of a fat (white arrow)-fluid (black arrow) level Fig. 3 Axial abdomen at the mid portion depicted the ascites that showed fat-fluid layering level (black and white arrows) Fig. 6 Axial CT showed the thick and stranding of the omentum (arrows) 514 J Med Assoc Thai Vol. 89 No Fig. 7 Pathology revealed a 3 cell-lines tumor A Adipose tissue C Cartilage M Mucous gland and digestive mucosa R Respiratory mucosa S Skin A right, adnexal mass, 14 cm, contained hair, fat and calcification with a 0.5 cm anterior wall perforation.the uterus, left tube and ovary appeared normal. After surgery, the patient s recovery was uneventful. Pathology (Fig. 7) The section of the right cystic ovary showed an admixture of variable mature tissues such as skin (S), brain tissue, thyroid tissue, respiratory mucosa (R), adipose tissue (A), cartilage (C), mucous gland and digestive tract mucosa (M) with focal anterior wall perforations and chronic peritonitis, foamy macrophages and foreign body giant cells. Discussion Mature teratoma of the ovary comprises a cyst lined by an epidermis-like epithelium and contains a variable admixture of elements of one or more of the three cell lines; meso-, endo- and ecto-dermal derivatives including sebaceous secretions, hair, teeth, bone or fat (3,6). The diagnosis of a mature cystic teratoma using CT imaging is straightforward because this modality is more sensitive for fat (7). Using CT, fat attenuation (sebaceous material) within a cyst, with or without calcification in the wall, is diagnostic for mature cystic teratoma (3,8-10). A floating mass of hair can sometimes be identified at the fat-aqueous fluid interface (8,9). Fat is reported in 93% of cases and teeth or other calcifications in 56% (10). In the presented patient, an axial and coronal contrast, material-enhanced CT scan of the cyst cavity demonstrated fat attenuation. A round, Rokitansky nodule was seen and had a feathery appearance at the fatty interface, where hair arose from it and calcification was seen. Despite the benign nature of these neoplasms, they have generated considerable interest because of their unusual presentation. Moreover, rupture or perforation of the cysts may give rise to peritonitis. However, spontaneous rupture of an ovarian dermoid cyst is rare, occurring in 1% of cases (8,10) due to the usually thick capsule. Two clinical presentations are associated with an intraperitoneal rupture of benign, cystic teratomas (1,5). The first is acute peritonitis caused by the rupture and sudden release of tumour contents, which may occur spontaneously, or in association with torsion, trauma, infection or labour. The second presentation is chronic granulomatous peritonitis resulting from a chronically leaking dermoid, characterized by multiple, small, white, peritoneal implants and dense adhesions, and variable ascites that simulate carcinomatosis or tuberculous peritonitis. Fluid collection can also occur in the bilateral, paracolic gutters and between the mesenteric leaflets. The latter is the more common presentation (11), as seen in the presented case. In addition to intraperitoneal rupture, the dermoid cyst may perforate into an adjacent organ. Although the latter occurs less frequently, numerous reports document spontaneous rupture of ovarian dermoid cysts into the bladder, small bowel, rectum, sigmoid colon and vagina. A review of the published literature revealed case reports about the CT findings of intraperitoneal ruptures of a teratoma (12-16). The present CT findings clearly demonstrated the rupture of sebaceous material into the peritoneal cavity, including fatty-fluid layering ascites and fatty implants. The fat globules may embed in the peritoneal cavity or visceral surface, such as the liver. The presented case demonstrated marked ascites with fattyfluid and omental infiltration, likely related to the chemical or granulomatous peritonitis induced by chronic leakage of sebaceous material. Conclusion The authors encountered CT findings indicating fatty-fluid and ascites in the peritoneum, which J Med Assoc Thai Vol. 89 No could be a reliable sign of intraperitoneal rupture of abdominal teratoma (dermoid) and subsequent chemical peritonitis. Acknowledgments The authors wish to thank Mr. Bryan Roderick Hamman for his assistance with the English-language presentation. References 1. Fibus TF. Intraperitoneal rupture of a benign cystic ovarian teratoma: findings at CT and MR imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2000; 174: Lipson SA, Hricak H. MR imaging of the female pelvis. Radiol Clin North Am 1996; 34: Outwater EK, Siegelman ES, Hunt JL. Ovarian teratomas: tumor types and imaging characteristics. Radio Graphics 2001; 21: Kido A, Togashi K, Konishi I, Kataoka ML, Koyama T, Ueda H, et al. Dermoid cysts of the ovary with malignant transformation: MR appearance. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1999; 172: Uysal E, Basak M, Aktas S. Spontaneous rupture of ovarian dermoid cyst associated with intraabdominal abscess. European Association of Radiology, E-Learning initiative [online]. Mar 30, Available from: URL: case.php?id= Outwater EK, Dunton CJ. Imaging of the ovary and adnexa: clinical issues and applications of MR imaging. Radiology 1995; 194: Guerriero S, Mallarini G, Ajossa S, Risalvato A, Satta R, Mais V, et al. Transvaginal ultrasound and computed tomography combined with clinical parameters and CA-125 determinations in the differential diagnosis of persistent ovarian cysts in premenopausal women. Ultrasound Obstetr Gynecol 1997; 9: Sheth S, Fishman EK, Buck JL, Hamper UM, Sanders RC. The variable sonographic appearances of ovarian teratomas: correlation with CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1988; 151: Occhipinti KA, Frankel SD, Hricak H. The ovary. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Radiol Clin North Am 1993; 31: Buy JN, Ghossain MA, Moss AA, Bazzot M, Doucet M, Hugol D, et al. Cystic teratoma of the ovary: CT detection. Radiology 1989; 171: Pantoja E, Noy MA, Axtmayer RW, Colon FE, Pelegrina I. Ovarian dermoids and their complications: comprehensive historical review. Obstet Gynecol Surv 1975; 30: Ferrero A, Cespedes M, Cantarero JM, Arenas A, Pamplona M. Peritonitis due to rupture of retroperitoneal teratoma: computed tomography diagnosis. Gastrointest Radiol 1990; 15: Levine RL, Pepe PE, Blackstone W, Danziger J, Varon J. Occult traumatic avulsion of an ovarian dermoid cyst. Am J Emerg Med 1992; 10: Pal DK, Kundu AK, Das S. Spontaneous rupture of benign cystic teratoma. Trop Doct 1996; 26: Bhatla N, Khanna R, Bhargava VL. Intraperitoneal rupture of benign cystic teratoma. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1993; 40: Ueda J, Furukawa T, Takahashi S, Shindoh T, Yoshikawa K. Intraperitoneal fat sign. Abdom Imaging 1997; 22: J Med Assoc Thai Vol. 89 No ภาพร งส เอกซเรย คอมพ วเตอร ภาวะช องท องอ กเสบทางเคม จากโรคถ งน ำร งไข แตก: ภาพการตรวจ ทางร งส ว ทยาท เป นล กษณะเฉพาะร วมก บทบทวนวรรณกรรม เบญจพร น ต นาวาการ, ว ฑ รย ประเสร ฐเจร ญส ข, จ ไรร ตน ก หลาบแก ว ผ ป วยหญ งโสดอาย 41 ป มาโรงพยาบาลด วยอาการท องเส ยมา 3 ส ปดาห หล งจากร กษาท โรงพยาบาล ใกล บ าน อาการท องเส ยด ข น แต ย งม อาการไข ร วมก บปวดท องและท องอ ดมากข นมา 2 ว น ตรวจร างกายม อาการช ด และท องอ ดบวมกดเจ บเล กน อย การตรวจทางร งส ว ทยา ได แก ฟ ล มเอกซเรย ช องท องและเอกซเรย คอมพ วเตอร พบเน อขนาดใหญ ท ม ห นป นจ บ บร เวณท องน อยด านขวาเข าได ก บถ งน ำร งไข ร วมก บการพบน ำในช องท องท ม ล กษณะของระด บหยดไขม นลอยหน า อย ในส วนของน ำในช องท อง ทำให น กถ งภาวะโรคถ งน ำร งไข ท ร วแตก ผ ป วยได ร บการผ าต ดพบถ งน ำข างร งไข ข างขวา ขนาด 14 ซม. ท ม รอยทะล 5 ม ลล เมตรและน ำปนไขม นในช องท อง 1 ล ตร ช องท องอ กเสบทางเคม หล งผ าต ดผ ป วย ม อาการเป นปกต J Med Assoc Thai Vol. 89 No
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