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Cover sheet ICS 1 Sem1 Block 7 Light Standards Physics 4 e, f To be accepted for grading it must be in order and signed Please go through the paper work with your student. Name Sign Period Test and packet
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Cover sheet ICS 1 Sem1 Block 7 Light Standards Physics 4 e, f To be accepted for grading it must be in order and signed Please go through the paper work with your student. Name Sign Period Test and packet due on 11/16 odd 11/15 even Assignment list 1. Cover 2. WCW 3. Standards Make three questions with answers for each standard 4. Vocabulary Bold, italic, underlined in standards- definition (12) 5. Notes Electro-Magnetic Spectrum Some items must be written on it from class only IDRDP-Interference Diffraction Refraction Doppler effect Polarization 6. Problems Electro-Magnetic Spectrum 7. Notes Properties of IDRDP 8. Problems Properties of IDRDP 9. Study Guide 10. CST prep Parent/Guardian: Print Sign PH 4. e. Students know radio waves, light, and X-rays are different wavelength bands in the spectrum of electromagnetic waves whose speed in a vacuum is approximately m/s (186,000 miles/second). PH 4. f. Students know how to identify the characteristic properties of waves: interference (beats), diffraction, refraction, Doppler effect, and polarization. Objective Understand the differences between wavelengths of Electro-Magnetic Spectrum. Identify the processes of waves interacting; Such as Interference, Polarization, Refraction, Diffraction and the Doppler Effect Language objective To use the distinct regions of the spectrum correctly, radio, microwave, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-ray, and gamma ray waves. Students can use the wavelength and frequency to describe a particular wave type. Understand the main difference between constructive and destructive interference. Explain how waves interact with other waves and materials using the terms, polarized, Doppler shifted, red-shift, blue-shift, normal and surface plain. Standard Physics 4- Waves have characteristic properties that do not depend on the type of wave. As a basis for understanding this concept: PH 4. e. Students know radio waves, light, and X-rays are different wavelength bands in the spectrum of electromagnetic waves whose speed in a vacuum is approximately m/s (186,000 miles/second). Electromagnetic waves consist of changing electric and magnetic fields. Because these fields are always perpendicular to the direction in which a wave moves, an electromagnetic wave is a transverse wave. The electric and magnetic fields are also always perpendicular to each other. Concepts of electric and magnetic fields are introduced in Standard Set 5, Electric and Magnetic Phenomena, in this section. The range of wavelengths for electromagnetic waves is very large, from less than nanometers (nm) for X-rays to more than kilometers for radio waves. The human eye senses only the narrow range of the electromagnetic spectrum from 400 nm to 700 nm. This range generates the sensation of the rainbow of colors from violet through the respective colors to red. In a vacuum all electromagnetic waves travel at the same speed of m/s (or 186,000 miles per second). In a medium the speed of an electromagnetic wave depends on the medium s properties and on the frequency of the wave. The ratio of the speed of a wave of a given frequency in a vacuum to its speed in a medium is called that medium s index of refraction. For visible light in water, this number is approximately 1.33. PH 4. f. Students know how to identify the characteristic properties of waves: interference (beats), diffraction, refraction, Doppler effect, and polarization. A characteristic and unique property of waves is that two or more can occupy the same region of space at the same time. At a particular instant, the crest of one wave can overlap the crest of another, giving a larger displacement of the medium from its condition of equilibrium; constructive interference. Also the crest of one wave can overlap the trough of another, giving a smaller displacement; destructive interference. The effect of two or more waves on a test particle is that the net force on the particle is the algebraic sum of the forces exerted by the various waves acting at that point. If two overlapping waves traveling in opposite directions have the same frequency, the result is a standing wave. There is a persistent pattern of having no displacement in some places, called nulls or nodes, and large, oscillating displacements in others, called maxima or antinodes. If two overlapping waves have nearly the same frequency, a node will slowly change to a maximum and back to a node, and a maximum will slowly change to a node and back to a maximum. For sound waves this periodic change leads to audible, periodic changes from loud to soft, known as beats. Diffraction describes the constructive and destructive patterns of waves created at the edges of objects. Diffraction can cause waves to bend around an obstacle or to spread as they pass through an aperture. The nature of the diffraction patterns of a wave interacting with an object depends on the ratio of the size of the obstacle to the wavelength. If this ratio is large, the shadows are nearly sharp; if it is small, the shadows may be fuzzy or not appear at all. Therefore, a hand can block a ray of light, whose average wavelength is about 500 nm, but cannot block an audible sound, whose average wavelength is about 100 cm. The bending of water waves around a post and the diffraction of light waves when passing through a slit in a screen are examples of diffraction patterns. Refraction describes a change in the direction of a wave that occurs when the wave encounters a boundary between one medium and another provided that the media have either different wave velocities or indexes of refraction and provided that the wave arrives at some angle to the boundary other than perpendicular. At a sharp boundary, the change in direction is abrupt; however, if the transition from one medium to another is gradual, so that the velocity of the wave changes slowly, then the change in the wave s direction is also gradual. Therefore, a ray of light that passes obliquely from air to water changes its direction at the water s surface, but a ray that travels through air that has a temperature gradient will follow a bent path. A ray of light passing through a saturated solution of sugar (sucrose) and water, which has an index of refraction of 1.49, will not change direction appreciably on entering a colorless, transparent piece of quartz submersed in the solution because the quartz has an almost identical index of The match in indexes makes the quartz nearly invisible in the sugar-water solution. Another interesting phenomenon, the Doppler Effect, accounts for the shift in the frequency of a wave when a wave source and an observer are in motion relative to each other compared with when they are at relative rest. This effect is most easily understood when the source is at rest in some medium and the observer is approaching the source at constant speed. The interval in time between each successive wave crest is shorter than it would be if the observer were at rest, and so the frequency observed is larger. The general rule, for observers moving at velocities much less than the velocity of the wave in its medium, is that the change in frequency depends only on the velocity of the observer relative to the source. Therefore, the shriek of an ambulance siren has a higher pitch when the source approaches and a lower pitch when the source recedes. For an observer following the ambulance at the same speed, the siren would sound normal. Similar shifts are observed for visible light. Polarization is a property of light and of other transverse waves. Transverse waves are those in which the displacement of a test particle is always perpendicular to the direction in which the wave travels. When that displacement is always parallel to a particular direction, the wave is said to be (linearly) polarized. A ray of light emitted from a hot object, like a lamp filament or the sun, is un-polarized; such a ray consists of many component waves overlapped so that there is no special direction perpendicular to the ray in which a test particle is favored to move. The components of an unpolarized ray can be sorted to select such a special direction and so make one or more polarized rays. An unpolarized ray that is partly reflected and partly transmitted by an angled sheet of glass is split into rays that are polarized; an un-polarized ray can become polarized by going through a material that allows only waves corresponding to one special direction to pass through. Item 7.2 WCW Topic: The characteristic properties of Electromagnetic Waves Standard: PH 4. e. Students know radio waves, light, and X-rays are different wavelength bands in the spectrum of electromagnetic waves whose speed in a vacuum is approximately m/s (186,000 miles/second) Objective: Understand the interactions of Electromagnetic waves With each other and matter Warm-up Describe the wave equation variables v = s or v f = f λ = w wavelength, frequency, speed, velocity Critical thinking v=(f) (λ) changed to this v = (2f) ( λ /?) Can you see the difference? ex. v= 20 = 2(10) v= 20 = 4(5) If the Frequency doubles then the wavelength must be divided by? in-order for the speed of light to remain the same When light and a material are involved, such as Light through air then water, the speed of light and the direction of light changes Give the ratio for the Index of Refraction, see standard #4.E Speed of a wave of a given frequency in a vacuum = Index of n Speed in a medium is called that medium s Refraction Wrap-up Sketch and describe- What type of EM wave? What Wavelength? Use item #5 A. B. C. D. Item 7.2 WCW Topic: Electromagnetic Wave: Uses, Hazards, Interactions Standard: PH 4. e. Radio waves, light, and X-rays are Different wavelength bands in the spectrum of electromagnetic Waves whose speed in a vacuum is approximately m/s (186,000 miles/second) Objective: Understand the wave equation Warm-up Sketch and describe- give possible types of wavelength A. Electrocution X-ray B. Sun burn UV \ C. Radioactive Gamma D. No cell phones Radio Critical Thinking Wave Equation: v = λ ƒ Horizontal line = Divide Vertical line = Multiply Speed Wav e leng Frequenc Wrap-up just practice the equation, the difference will be the values, like v = c from item #5 λ= v / ƒ ƒ = v / λ v = ƒ λ Units m Hz or 1/s m/s Ex Find λ when v = 10m/s ƒ = 5 Hz Find ƒ when v = 10m/s λ = 5 m Find v when ƒ = 10 1/s λ = 5 m v = (10m/s) / (5Hz) or = (10m/s) / 5 (1/s) = 2 m v = (10m/s) / (5m) = 2 (1/s) Or 2 Hz v = (10 1/s) (5m) = 20 (m/s) Item 7.2 WCW Topic: Electromagnetic Waves are all around Us Standard: PH 4. f. Students know how to identify the characteristic properties of waves: Interference (beats), Diffraction, Refraction, Doppler Effect and Polarization Objective: Understand the interactions of Electromagnetic waves with each other and matter Warm-up Sketch and describe- Why so Blue? A. Blue bends the most B. Blue bends the most C. Blue bends the most D. Blue reflects Critical thinking What is the main difference between Diffraction and refraction? Use item 7.7 Wrap-up Sketch and describe A. Waves have diff. Energy B. Wavelengths, diff color C. Transverse wave D. Longitudinal wave Item 7.2 WCW Topic: Electromagnetic Waves Standard: PH 4. f. Students know how to identify the characteristic properties of waves: Interference (beats), Diffraction, Refraction, Doppler Effect and Polarization Objective: Understand the facts about the Electromagnetic spectrum Warm-up Give the wave type and describe the characteristics of that type for sound and light Word bank- Transverse Vacuum Medium (twice) Longitudinal Parallel Perpendicular Sound is 1 wave which is a wave that only travels through a 2 because the displacement of the medium is 3 to the propagation of the wave. Light is a 4 wave which is a wave that can travel in both a 5 and a 6 this is because the displacement of the medium is 7 to the propagation of the wave. Critical thinking Why is the wave said to be in a red shift or blue shift when describing Doppler Effect? Word bank- Away Red Toward Blue Frequency The Doppler Effect is the change in pitch or 1 due to wave or object motion. If the object making the noise (or light) moves 2 a stationary person then the sound (light) is heard (seen) as a 3 shift. If the object making the noise (or light) moves 4 from a stationary person then the sound heard and light seen is said to be 5 shifted. Wrap-up one special direction Linearly- polarized un-polarized (3) Transverse always parallel Polarization perpendicular is a property of light and of other transverse waves. waves are those in which the displacement of a test particle is always perpendicular to the direction in which the wave travels. When that displacement is to a particular direction, the wave is said to be.a ray of light emitted from a hot object, like a lamp filament or the sun, is unpolarized; such a ray consists of many component waves overlapped so that there is no special direction to the ray in which a test particle is favored to move. The components of an ray can be sorted to select such a special direction and so make one or more polarized rays. An ray that is partly reflected and partly transmitted by an angled sheet of glass is split into rays that are polarized; an ray can become polarized by going through a material that allows only waves corresponding to to pass through. Item 7.4 vocabulary 1. Index of Refraction. The ratio of the speed of a wave of a given frequency in a vacuum to its speed in a medium is called that medium s. For visible light in water, this number is approximately Constructive Interference the crest of one wave can overlap the crest of another, giving a larger displacement of the medium from its condition of equilibrium 3. Destructive Interference the crest of one wave can overlap the trough of another, giving a smaller displacement; 4. Nulls or Nodes a persistent pattern of having no displacement in some places 5. Maxima or Antinodes large, oscillating displacements in some places 6. Beats For sound waves this periodic change leads to audible, periodic changes from loud to soft, 7. Diffraction describes the constructive and destructive patterns of waves created at the edges of objects. 8. Refraction describes a change in the direction of a wave that occurs when the wave encounters a boundary between one medium and another provided that the media have either different wave velocities or indexes of refraction and provided that the wave arrives at some angle to the boundary other than perpendicular. 9. Doppler Effect accounts for the shift in the frequency of a wave when a wave source and an observer are in motion relative to each other compared with when they are at relative rest. 10. Polarization is a property of light and of other transverse waves. 11. Transverse waves are those in which the displacement of a test particle is always perpendicular to the direction in which the wave travels. 12. Linearly Polarized When displacement of a wave is always parallel to a particular direction. A ray of light emitted from a hot object, like a lamp filament or the sun, is un-polarized Item 7.5 Notes Electro-Magnetic Spectrum Radio waves, light, and X-rays are different wavelength bands in the spectrum of electromagnetic waves whose speed in a vacuum is approximately m/s (186,000 miles/second). 1. Electromagnetic waves consist of changing electric and magnetic fields 2. Wavelength Range Electromagnetic Spectrum is very large: From Radio to Gamma rays 3. Visible Light The human eye senses only a narrow range of the electromagnetic spectrum from 400 nm to 700 nm. This range generates colors always perpendicular to the direction in which a wave moves, transverse wave perpendicular to each other Continue item #5 4. Speed In a vacuum all electromagnetic waves travel at the same speed Speed of light c = m/s 186,000 miles /s UV light Can kill Tuberculosis bacteria. It must be at the same frequency as light with a wavelength of 254nanometers. Calculate the Frequency C=fλ 5. In a medium the speed of an electromagnetic wave depends on the medium s properties and on the frequency of the wave. Light frequency and wavelength changes in a material 6. The ratio of the speed of a wave of a given frequency in a vacuum to its speed in a medium is called that medium s index of refraction Visible light in water, Index of Refraction Water = 1.33 Oil =1.47 Air = 1.0 Properties of a wave: Wavelength- Lambda, λ units- m, meters Peak to the next peak Energy wavelength Radio = 1000m = 10 3 m Visible Light = between 400nm and 750nm m = 400 x 10-9 m = 400 nm X-rays = m = m Amplitude - Amp or A units m, meters Height of the wave Frequency ƒ units- Hertz, Hz or 1/s Amount of wave passing a spot every second 1 Hertz = 1 Hz = 1 wave/second = 10 0 Hz 1 kilohertz = 1 khz = 1000 Hz = 1 x10 3 Hz 1 megahertz = 1 million Hz = 1 x 10 6 Hz Using the wave equation : v= ƒ λ or c = ƒ λ c = 3 x 10 8 m/s Vacuum -outer space Speed of all EM waves = 300 million m/s General Speed (m/s) = frequency (Hz) x wavelength (m) The EM spectrum: Different regions which depend on the properties of the EM spectra R-M-I-V-U-X-G Electrical and magnetic disturbances that transfer energy All travel at speed of light Energy transferred by wavelength Put into groups according to wavelength Different waves lengths = different effects Notes: 1. Electromagnetic waves-radio, TV, Microwave, Infrared, Visible light, Ultra-Violet, X-ray, Gamma ray 2. Interference- the superposition of two or more waves resulting in a new wave pattern 3. Constructive interference- two waves that are in phase, sharing the same frequency and with amplitudes A 1 and A 2. Their troughs and peaks line up and the resultant wave will have amplitude A = A 1 + A Destructive interference- two waves are π radians, or 180, out of phase, then one wave's crests will coincide with another waves' troughs and so will tend to cancel itself out. The resultant amplitude is A = A 1 A 2. If A 1 = A 2, the resultant amplitude will be zero. 5. Node- minimum in the electromagnetic wave 6. Antinode- maximum in the electromagnetic wave 7. Diffraction- the apparent bending of waves around small obstacles and the spreading out of waves past small openings. 8. Refraction- change in direction of a wave due to a change in its speed 9. Doppler Effect- the change in frequency of a wave for an observer moving relative to the source of the wave 10. Polarization- the orientation of oscillations in the plane perpendicular to a transverse wave's direction of travel Item 7.6 Problems EM waves 1. λ stands for Wavelength the units are meters 2. You measure them from crest to crest 3. Radio waves has a wavelength of X-rays have a wavelength of Amp or A stands for amplitude the units meters 6. Means the height of the wave 7. ƒ stands for Frequency the units are Hertz 8. Amount of wave passing a spot every second is the waves Frequency 9. The wave equation is given by v = f λ 10. Outer space has no atmosphere and is known as a vacuum 11. The speed of all EM waves is the speed of light given by 300,000,000m/s 12. E-M stands for Electromagnetic spectrum Item 7. 7 Notes IDRDP Interference Constructive- adding waves makes bigger wave Destructive- adding waves makes smaller wave Diffraction- bending pattern of light around material Refraction-bending of light through material Reflection- Mirror image of an object Doppler Effect- red, lower frequency, away -blue, higher frequency, toward Polarization- the orientation of the oscillation in a wave is perpendicular to motion (rollercoaster) Item 7.8 Problems Properties of IDRDP 1. Reflection occurs when a wave A) causes ripples in a pool of water B) compresses air particles as it travels C) strikes an object and bounces off of it D) bends and changes speeds as it travels 2. The is an imaginary line perpendicular to the surface of a medium where a wave strikes it. A) incidence B) diffraction grating C) interference D) normal 3. occurs when waves ben
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